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FAQs

Baby Nutrition

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Can training healthy eating habits really help prevent lifelong obesity?

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Absolutely! We now know that eating habits and relationships with food developed prior to your child’s 2nd birthday are likely to be what he carries through into adulthood. So a diet laden with deep-fried food and sugary beverages, and eaten in excess (overriding fullness cues), especially to overcome boredom or emotional needs rather than hunger, can and does result in significantly higher rates of weight-related issues. 

Conversely, healthy eating habits developed before his 2nd birthday can and do remain with him for life! Learning what is healthy, how to develop and enjoy preferences for these foods, when to respond to cues of fullness to promote appetite regulation, and why to not offer foods as rewards and/or for anything other than hunger, are all imperative. Guiding your child through these skills will ensure he has the start in life he deserves. [12, 16, 17, 23, 24, 30, 52, 60, 69, 85]

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When do I start training healthy eating habits?

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Research has shown that by the time he is 3 years old he has already developed his food likes and dislikes, good or bad, healthy or otherwise! The good news is we are presented with a window of opportunity [5] to alter these preferences through exposure during a very sensitive period of his life.[24, 48] These first exposures can start as early as 8 weeks post-conception, via a mother’s amniotic fluid, and later on via breast milk. Therefore, a  mother can start flavour training long before the introduction of solid foods, simply through the foods she chooses to eat. [65, 84] 

We also know our babies’ brains are little sponges and even in the first 6 months of life they are soaking up everything around them. Whether you are breastfeeding or not, had a diet of kale or cookies throughout pregnancy, it is never too early or too late to start this learning.

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What are the physical signs my baby is ready for solids?

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Sometime between 4 and 6 months is generally when babies are physically and emotionally ready to start solids. However, every baby is different so it is important that you watch for clues he is ready rather than going by the calendar. Here are some signs that he may be ready:

    • He can sit upright and hold up his head
    • He may start to take an interest when you are eating
    • Reaching out and grabbing food
    • He has lost the tongue-thrust reflex that automatically pushes food and/or spoon out of his mouth
    • Eagerly opens his mouth when a spoon touches lip or as food approaches
    • Can keep food in his mouth and swallow it
    • Watching and leaning forward when food is around

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He seems to be really hungry and has started waking at night. He is not yet 4 months old but can I start him on solids anyway?

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Some babies go through a growth spurt at around 12 weeks and may want more feeds. This is normal and does not signal the need to start solid foods. It is tempting to think that by giving some solids it may satisfy him for longer and therefore sleep for longer. Giving solids too early rarely helps these problems and may lead to other difficulties. These include:

  • Poor growth if solid food replaces breast milk or formula Milk is a far better source of energy than solid food when babies are very young. This is because babies won’t actually get many calories from food in these early stages.
  • Loose bowel actions or diarrhoea as his digestive system is not developmentally capable of digesting the food A number of key enzymes required to digest solid foods do not start until closer to 5 and/or 6 months of age. Introducing solids before the gut is physically ready can lead to irritation and inflammation of the intestines.
  • Increased risk of tummy upsets and tummy bugs Immune systems are still developing and will continue to do so over the next 1 to 2 years. Up until 4 months this immature immune system is unable to fight off pathogens that may be introduced with solid foods.
  • Obesity Researchers have discovered that inflammation and changes in gut bacteria over a child’s first year of life can affect his metabolism. This can have long-term effects on energy production, insulin resistance, and the ability to burn fat. This places a child at risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes even before his 1st birthday.
  • Dehydration Before 4 months of age, babies have a limited renal capacity to conserve fluids and excrete dissolved solids. 
  • Gagging and choking Infants are born with a tongue-thrust reflex that automatically pushes food out of his mouth. They do not start to lose this reflex until 4 or 5 months of age. Introducing solids too early can cause babies to gag as they do not have the ability to move food to the back of the mouth to swallow. We want to keep this journey as positive as possible, even if it takes a little longer than expected. 
  • Allergies Introducing solids too early may contribute to an increased allergy risk. [76] 

So if he is going through a hungrier spell, instead of reaching for the solids, provide extra milk feeds. 

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Is there such a thing as waiting too long to introduce solids?

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Yes, there are a number of reasons why delaying the introduction for too long can be potentially disadvantageous. 

    • Smaller window of opportunity to create healthy eating preferences It is well known there is a window of opportunity [5] between 5 and 7 months, whereby babies are very accepting and receptive to new flavors and experiences. [9, 42, 45]
    • Nutrient deficiencies By 6 to 7 months babies start to need extra nutrients [14] in order to optimize growth and development. [72] These extra nutrients can no longer be sustained by milk alone and so must be provided by the solid foods he eats. It is therefore important that, by 7 to 8 months, babies have established the ability to accept a wide variety of nutrient-dense [23] solid foods. 
    • Increased risk of allergies The late introduction of solids (7+ months) may actually increase the risk of food allergies. Mounting evidence has suggested that the earlier the exposure, within guidelines, [45] the decreased risk of development of allergies. 
    • Delayed motor development Learning to chew, through exposure to a wide variety of textures, [42] is a developmental milestone that all babies must learn in order to learn to eat. These motor skills are also important for the development of speech. Delaying the development of these motor skills, much beyond 7 months, can therefore incur future developmental delays. [66] 
    • Food fussiness Missing the window of opportunity [5] to develop healthy eating preferences can increase the chances of food spiciness. [14, 43, 66]

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What’s best to feed beyond 6 months old?

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Nutrient-filled spoonfuls of flavor! As he approaches 6 to 7 months his nutritional demands to support and optimize healthy growth and development are high, and are no longer able to be met by his milk feeds [14]. However, his tummy is still very small so it is important not to fill it up with nutritionally ‘empty’ foods. Most of us interpret malnutrition to be ‘not enough food’ and a Third-World problem. But malnutrition is rife right here in our ‘land of plenty,’ as children are not ingesting food with the best nutrients. Even at a healthy weight (and indeed overweight), an individual can suffer from malnutrition if their diet is limited to a select handful of foods, or the wrong foods (often at the expense of nutrient-dense foods [23] and milk feeds). It is therefore important to consider all his nutritional needs, now and going forward, not only in terms of flavor, but also composition.

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Should I cut back on the breast milk/formula when baby starts solid foods?

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Breast milk or infant formula remains the most important nutrient source for the first year of life, and complementary foods must not be given in amounts that will dramatically reduce milk intake. This can be achieved by giving a milk feed before giving solid foods, which are then used as a ‘top-up’ at the end of the meal. At around 8 to 9 months of age, complementary foods can be offered before the milk feed. Gradually, complementary foods displace milk feeds, but breast milk or infant formula should remain a prominent part of an infant’s diet until at least 12 months old.

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Should baby be eating breakfast, lunch, and dinner?

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When first introducing him to solid foods, it is important to choose a time in the day [21] that is free of stress, when he is well-rested, and not overly hungry. When starting out, this is most likely not going to fall at regular meal times in the day. All babies are different so listen to their cues [36] and follow your gut instinct.

A feeding schedule may look like this:

  • Exploration phase: 4 to 6 months
    1—2 ‘meals’ per day. ‘Meals’ during this period may only be a teaspoonful, most of which may end up on his face. That is OK! He is still exploring and will be gaining from the taste experience.
    Milk feeds during this time should be offered first to ensure he is not overly hungry. He is still unable to associate hunger with solids so will likely get upset if overly hungry. As milk is still his number one source of nutrition it is important that solids do not replace milk but rather complement it.
  • Getting the hang of it! 5 to 7 months
    1—2 meals per day. By now he should be able to enjoy 2—4 tablespoons of puree at each sitting. Most babies are having two meals per day, but this can change daily. Just remember the responsive feeding [36] rule of letting him guide you. If you offer and he clearly is uninterested or upset, no problem. What he may really want is a milk feed and a sleep.
    Milk feeds should still be given first thing in the morning and before naps and bedtimes. During the day you may start to experiment with offering a milk feed before or after meals. If he is a big drinker you might want to offer it after a meal, or if he is only a moderate drinker you might try the opposite. 
  • Whoop whoop, we got this! 7 to 12 months
    2—3 meals per day. Once he starts to get excited and interested in food, you can slowly start introducing scheduled mealtimes. This might start to resemble the family mealtimes of breakfast, lunch, and dinner, but the key here is not to be too rigid. Routines can easily be derailed by poor sleep, teething, tummy upsets, stress, even having visitors. Go with it, and find out what works for you and your family.

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What about snacks in between meals?

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Snacks really don’t have a place in the first year of life and here’s why: The evolution of snacks is to provide a quick easy solution to fill a gap before the next mealtime. Many snack options tend to be something to grab on the go, and are often highly processed (the obvious exception being fruit). One snack as a stop-gap measure can quickly turn into two, and before you know it, the demands for favourite snacks start encroaching and undoing all the hard work to develop preferences for healthy wholefoods. [29]

Establishing and maintaining a nutritious eating regime in the first year of life is imperative. Three meals a day, plus milk feeds as top-ups in between, leaves very little room in their tiny tummies for nutrient-empty fillers. The second reason for reaching for a snack food is generally to comfort, clam, or distract him in times of stress.[83] Now, there is no harm in this if it’s once in a while. The problem begins if every time he is upset he is rewarded with a snack, he will quickly start to associate food with emotions rather than appetite. Ever wondered where the term ‘emotional eating’ comes from? Bingo! So before you reach for the cracker packet, stop and think if he is genuinely hungry and/or how else you might be able to give comfort.

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Can my baby eat what the family eats?

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You only need to look around the world to see the wide variety of foods infants learn to eat as a normal part of the family diet. The difference between children who eat hot spicy foods and those who are happy to eat sour or bitter foods is repetitive exposure throughout the first 1000 days. Therefore, if you have traditional cultural foods that your family commonly eats, early repetitive exposure is the key. However, it’s important all that family foods fall within the nutrient guidelines [19] of low in sugar, salt, and saturated fats, and that you have no concerns with allergies [44] before introducing them. 

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What does ‘nutrient dense’ mean?

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Nutrient-dense foods are high in nutrients. This is not to be confused with energy dense, which is high in calories, usually at the expense of nutrition. Essentially, nutrient-dense foods have as many nutrients as possible squeezed into them. This is important because an infant’s intake at the initial stages of starting solids is so small, and their nutritional requirements are so high. [53] A diet high in watery cereals and fruit purees will not sustain the nutritional demands of a growing infant and do nothing to support the development of healthy eating preferences. The World Health Organization recommends a complementary weaning diet consisting of meat, poultry, fish or eggs, along with a wide variety of vegetables, on a daily basis. [54] 

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How much iron does baby need?

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All babies are born with enough iron stores, passed on from their mother, to sustain them for approximately 6 months, by which time the iron requirements can no longer be met by milk alone. (Premature and low birth-weight babies are a little different so it pays to check with your paediatrician. [45, 57, 72, 80] In fact, a 6 to 8-month-old infant requires 9 times as much iron and 4 times as much zinc, per 100g of bodyweight, as an adult male! Iron is essential to optimize brain growth, and the development of a strong immune system. However, not all iron sources are created equal. 

  • Heme iron—found in animal proteins The best sources are red meat and dark poultry meat. Heme iron has the highest rate of absorption and utilization within the body at 15% to 35% if consumed with a good source of vitamin C. 
  • Nonheme iron—found in green leafy vegetables, eggs, tofu, and legumes Nonheme iron has an absorption rate of 5% to 12% Therefore, a lot more would need to be consumed to achieve daily requirements, which can be difficult with such small tummies.
  • Iron salts—found predominantly in fortified formulas and infant cereals Iron salts have an absorption rate of 2 to 5%. Although many infant cereals claim to have high levels of iron, in reality, due to its poor bio-availability (absorption), it is not the best source for infants.

Therefore, incorporating meat products into your baby’s diet will be hugely beneficial in terms of meeting his iron requirements. [73] The World Health Organization recommends the inclusion of meat, poultry, fish, or eggs eaten daily, or as often as possible. [54] Now, this is not to say a vegetarian diet can’t be healthy, it will just take a lot more work to ensure all his nutritional requirements are met. It is strongly advised you consult a pediatric nutritionist if you decide to go down this route.

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What are good sources of protein?

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Meat, poultry, fish, and eggs are all excellent sources of protein. Milk and milk products as well as pulses, legumes, and soy are also good sources of protein, however, milk should not be introduced as a drink before one year as this can interfere with iron uptake, and/or take the place of more nutrient-dense milk options (breast milk or formula, which is specifically manufactured to deliver nutrient needs). It is OK to use small amounts of full-fat milk in food preparation. Caution must also be applied when relying too heavily on pulses and legumes to meet protein needs. They are high in fiber, which is a good thing, but too much fiber can irritate an immature gut and provide too much bulk, limiting tiny tummies to other, more nutrient-dense [23] options. 

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What are good sources of carbohydrates?

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Starchy vegetables (pumpkin, potato, sweet potato, yams) are all excellent sources of carbohydrates. So too are the rest of the vegetable family as well as fruit. However, we know that fruit, although natural, can have a high sugar content (sugar is a carbohydrate in its simplest form) and so needs to be given in moderation as part of a healthy diet. When his gut is mature enough [58], further good sources of carbohydrates are wholegrain cereals, pasta, and rice. 

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How much food does baby need?

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All babies are different so there certainly is no ‘one size fits all’ on portion sizes. In the beginning, most of his nutrition will be coming from milk, so it is far more important to concentrate on the quality, not the quantity, [5, 9] the development of taste preferences [4], and the overall sensory experience.

Start by offering 1 to 2 teaspoons of first foods after a breast or infant formula feed. Slowly increase this to 2 to 3 tablespoons. Start offering complementary foods once a day and, as they get accustomed to it, slowly build up to 3 times a day [17]. Offer more food as your baby grows. As a rough guide:

  • 5 to 6 months 1–2 tsp, 1–2 times per day
  • 6 to 7 months 2–4 tab, 2–3 times per day
  • 7 to 9 months 3–5 tab, 3 times per day
  • 9 to 12 months 4–5 tab, 3 times per day

It is important to listen to your baby and take his cue on this. Responsive feeding [36] is allowing him to eat only as much as he wants to satisfy hunger.

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How do I know baby has eaten enough?

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Infant self-regulation through responsive feeding [36] is another important learnt behaviour. A well-meaning caregiver’s natural instinct to ensure their child has had enough to eat can override satiety cues, in turn leading to over-consumption and obesity risk. [17, 31] It is important caregivers can recognize the signs of satiety and foster the early entrainment of appetite control. Some signs that he may be full are:

    • Turning his head away when the spoon is coming toward him
    • Pushing the spoon away with his hand
    • Fussing or playing with his food
    • Loss of interest

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What are healthy feeding practices?

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Infants and toddlers rely entirely on their caregivers to teach them what, when, and how to eat. Healthy feeding practices foster responsive parenting [36], which in turn lay down the foundations for long-term healthy eating habits and behaviours.

  • You provide, let him decide. You provide what is on offer, and he decides when he has had enough. It is important not to pressure him to finish or eat more than he wants to at any given sitting. Not only can this have detrimental effects on his ability to regulate his appetite (increasing risk of obesity), but can also lead to anxiety and a poor relationship with food. This can then manifest in poor appetite, food refusal, and increasingly stressful mealtimes. 
  • Keep mealtimes happy and stress-free. A child’s relationship with food begins from a very early age so ensuring this is a positive one will help to eliminate unnecessary anxieties associated with food. Not only can this result in fussy eaters but also eating disorders later in life. 
  • Remove unnecessary distractions such as television, phones, or overactive pets.
  • Ensure he is sitting comfortably and facing you and other family members. Eating is a social activity and children are much more likely to eat something if a caregiver is eating enthusiastically in front of them. [62, 63, 64]
  • Respond to hunger and fullness cues [36] and leave behind expectations of how much you want him to eat. [31]
  • Feed slowly and patiently, encouraging him to eat but not forcefully or coercively. [28]
  • Do not resort to unhealthy foods you know he will eat to ensure he “just eats something.” Feeding nutrient-poor foods can lead to a vicious cycle of even poorer appetites and therefore less interest in the healthy options. Remember, while on milk feeds he is not going to go hungry and/or disrupt sleep patterns from missing a meal. Offering unhealthy alternatives, especially sweet (e.g. fruit), can actually have detrimental effects on sleep due to the spike in blood sugar levels followed by a slump. 
  • Only offer food for hunger and not for any other reason. Offering food to infants and children for comfort, entertainment, or as bribery can lead to long-term problems with emotional eating and overeating [18]. It can also serve to increase his dislike of healthy food if an unhealthy alternative is offered as bribery. 

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Should my baby be eating meat?

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Yes! Red meat in particular is an excellent source of iron [24, 73] which is easily absorbed, and recommended by the World Health Organization to be eaten on a regular basis. [54] Meat also provides important sources of dietary fat, B vitamins, and zinc. 

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Should I give my baby fruit?

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We encourage a vegetables-first approach [35], then fruit and sweeter vegetables can also be introduced. Variation is the key to extend your baby’s palate to a wider range of taste experiences. Even though fruits are deemed as healthy and should be included in our diet, most still contain high amounts of sugar, in the form of fructose. It may be considered ‘healthier’ than highly refined sources, but at the end of the day, sweet is sweet, regardless of its source! Evolution has primed us with an innate preference for sweet, however, research has shown we can train healthy eating preferences toward a range of flavor profiles, including bitter and sour. [13] We just need to provide our children with plenty of opportunities to do so. [20, 21]

So, vegetables first, vegetables in repetition, and vegetables in a wide variety, with small amounts of fruit dispersed throughout. While it’s easy to offer the familiar banana and apple, try to also include sour fruits such as tart plums and tart apples. 

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My baby has reflux, are there any foods I shouldn’t give him?

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Generally, by 5 to 6 months reflux starts to improve as the gastrointestinal tract starts to mature. Sometimes, starting him on solids can actually help with reflux. However, to start off with you might want to avoid highly acidic foods such as citrus and tomato. Here are some more tips for a baby prone to reflux:

    • Always feed him in an upright position.
    • Do not lay him down directly after a feed.
    • Avoid dairy products, milk, cheese, and yogurt as well as high-acid foods.
    • Space out both solid and milk feeds.
    • Smaller more frequent feeds are better than fewer larger ones.
    • Offer single foods and wait a couple of days before introducing a new one. All babies react differently to different foods. You might find certain foods exacerbate his reflux so avoiding them for the time being can help. Remember to try again in a couple of weeks. As his gut matures he will most likely tolerate a wider range of foods. 

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Should I give my baby infant cereal?

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Today, few pediatricians recommend that parents start with infant cereal. Dr. Frank Greer, former chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), encourages parents to stay away from infant cereals. Here’s why:

  • Eating infant cereal limits the opportunities to develop food preferences for healthy alternatives. [5] We know that the first 6 months of introducing solids is a critical period for learning and developing food preferences. Offering a bland overprocessed product instead of healthy wholefoods can lead to a preference and habit for these types of foods. 
  • Infant cereal is nutrient poor. Not only does baby rice/cereal offer nothing in the way of assisting preferences toward a healthy diet [14], they are also nutritionally poor [23]. Although fortified with iron, iron in this form is generally not well absorbed [24].
  • Infant cereal can lead to sore tummies. The developing gut, in the early stages, does not produce enough of the enzyme required to break down grains. As a result, grains can cause inflammation and irritation [57] of the digestive system if introduced too early.
  • Infant cereal is high in carbohydrates and low in fats and protein. Babies use fats [51], not carbohydrates, as their primary fuel source. A diet high in carbohydrates (infant cereals, refined sugar, fruit juice) and low in good fats and protein, will require high levels of insulin to process it. Over time this can have a detrimental effect on how the body utilizes foods as fuel in the future [14].
  • Infant cereal can cause constipation. Rice cereals in particular are very low in fiber and known to contribute to constipation. [54, 90] Wholegrains, on the other hand, are a good source of fiber, as well as many other health benefits, so should be considered in his diet, as appropriate [55].

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Is fat good for my baby?

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Healthy fats are an essential part of a healthy diet for babies. In fact, 40 to 50% of their energy intake should be coming from a good source.68 Fats are needed to support optimal brain development, build strong immune systems, and to absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Healthy sources include red meat, chicken, fish (especially oily species such as salmon), avocado, olive/coconut oil, bone broth, and cheese (from 8 months). Fat also provides an important function with the mouth feel, texture, and flavor of food, reinforcing the positive messaging with these foods.

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Should I be giving my baby something to drink other than milk?

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Milk (breast or formula) should remain the number one source of fluids through to your baby’s first birthday. However, you can offer a little water in a sippy cup when starting solids, provided that it does not displace the regular milk feeds he is receiving. Babies can get dehydrated quickly so having a sippy cup on hand is a great habit to get into. Drinking water is also a habit babies should develop, not to mention children and adults alike. 

Bone broth

  • Another option is a salt-free bone broth, warmed slightly and offered in a sippy cup. Homemade bone broth is not only an amazing source of nutrients for the whole family, but also helps to broaden the palate. As milk is comparatively sweet, introducing an umami flavor profile can help enhance preferences for savory. The nutrients that leach from the bones through long slow cooking provide an easily digested form of calcium and magnesium, which help build strong healthy bones and teeth. Bone broth can also provide specific amino acids that help boost immunity and improve digestion, and collagen has the ability to strengthen the intestinal tract, which in turn can reduce the risk of allergies and food sensitivities. 

Fruit juice

  • Babies under 12 months should not be given juice, even 100% fruit juice. Sugar is sugar, regardless of its origin, and fruit juice has nearly as much sugar as fizzy drinks. Not only does this exacerbate preferences for sweet, but is also detrimental to dental health, excessive weight gain, and can play havoc with energy levels and developing metabolic processes. Fruit juice can also displace more nutritious foods and/or milk through reducing appetite, and can also cause diaper rash and/or diarrhoea.

Cow’s milk

  • Should not be given before 12 months old. Cow’s milk does not contain the nutritional profile of breast milk or formula so if cow’s milk is given instead, he may not be receiving all the nutrients he needs to optimize growth and development. Cow’s milk is also difficult to digest in babies due to their immature digestive system, and is also associated with iron deficiency. It is OK to cook with cow’s milk before 12 months and it is also a good idea to introduce small amounts of dairy-based products such as yogurt and cheese. 

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What are the signs my baby might be constipated?

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Some straining during pooping is OK. However, if coupled with the following symptoms, it might pay to have it checked out with your pediatrician.

  • Gone longer than 5 days without a bowel movement
  • Significant discomfort and off his regular feeds
  • Pellet-sized and/or dry hard stools
  • Firm, distended belly
  • Blood in stools or nappy (not to be confused with beetroot as it can look alarmingly similar!)

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What are the common causes of constipation?

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  • Immature digestive system. While his digestive system adapts to digesting solids, constipation and/or diarrhoea can be common. Generally, this subsides as his body learns to process food, however, you might want to take it slowly on the solids until then, or try different foods [58]. 
  • Dehydration through too much solid food and not enough milk. Sometimes his eagerness to consume large amounts of solids can result in little room for his milk feeds. It is therefore important that, especially in the early phases of introducing solids, that the milk feed comes before his solid feeds. Remember, his solids should be complementary to his milk, not replacing it. You can also introduce a small amount of water in a cup at meal times.
  • Dehydration through illness. A recent tummy upset can result in dehydration, especially if he had been vomiting and/or had diarrhoea. A common cold can also make it harder for him to breath and drink at the same time as well as decrease his appetite. Try smaller, more regular feeds to keep hydration levels up and if concerned, contact your pediatrician.
  • Some medications. Iron supplements in particular are known to firm up stools. Note: It is important you discuss any discontinuation of medication with your pediatrician before you make assumptions and stop on your own accord.
  • Travel, heat, and stress. Increasing fluids during particularly warm weather can help prevent dehydration.
  • Lack of fiber. A diet limited to low-fibre solid foods (highly refined infant cereal, apple sauce, dairy products) can result in constipation. A diet rich in a rainbow of vegetables (and some fruits) and when appropriate, wholegrains [57], will provide the fiber necessary for normal bowel movements. [60]

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When is it OK to give my baby cereals and grains?

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In order for him to be able to digest cereals and grains he needs to make use of enzymes he produces to break these down to release nutrients. However, the particular enzyme he requires, pancreatic amylase, is not produced until the second half of his first year (6 to 12 months). Although there will be no drastic effect (in most children) in introducing grains before this enzyme is present, it will mean that the nutrients from the grains may not be well absorbed. Undigested product can also begin to irritate an immature digestive system, effecting the balance of bacteria and microbiota [32]. Therefore, the general consensus is to wait until at least 6 months before incorporating small amounts of cereals/grains, preferably wholegrain, [87, 89] into his diet. It is also important to offer a nutritionally dense [23] diet of varied flavors and textures to train healthy eating habits [1], and to limit highly refined and processed foods [50]. 

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Disclaimer: The information provided is the opinion of Good Feeding, it has not been evaluated by healthcare professionals, and is for educational purposes only.  Before starting any new foods or feeding practices, please consult your baby's healthcare professional.